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Tidal Energy

With tidal energy, large bodies of water such as oceans and seas are acted upon by the gravitational forces of the sun and moon, which in combination with the rotation of the earth on its axis, cause movements of the oceans and seas, known as tides. The motion of the moon and sun relative to the earth causes a periodic variation in the forces that generate the tides. Vertical movement (range) can be seen in the difference in water level at high and low tide, and horizontal motion of water is known as a tidal current...

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Wave Energy

Wave energy forms as kinetic energy from the wind is transmitted to the upper surface of the ocean. The height and period of resulting waves will vary depending on the energy flux between the wind and the ocean surface. Much work has been carried out in the field of research and development of technology capable of harnessing energy from the waves. At present there is limited design consensus surrounding the design of wave energy technology, and there are several areas in which a wave energy converter can be placed in order to harness the energy most efficiently.

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Salinity Gradient

At the mouth of rivers where fresh water mixes with salt water, energy associated with the salinity gradient can be harnessed using pressure-retarded reverse osmosis process and associated conversion technologies. Another system is based on using freshwater upwelling through a turbine immersed in seawater, and one involving electrochemical reactions is also in development.

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Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) can provide base-load power. Devices exploit the temperature difference between deep cold ocean water and warm tropical surface waters. OTEC plants pump large quantities of deep cold seawater and surface seawater to run a power cycle and produce electricity. OTEC power plants are either onshore or offshore...

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Tidal Range

Tidal range captures the potential energy created by the difference in sea level (or head) between high and low tides.
Tidal range technology uses the same principles as conventional hydropower and requires a natural or a man-made structure (e.g. a dam or barrier) to impound a large body of water. 

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